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Why Do Chinese Turn to Biao Hui Instead of Banks for Loans
2017-07-05 20:18    
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简介:
One of the largest biao huis , also known as Chinese community underground loan clubs, collapsed and more than $20 million from its over 170 members evaporated. Why is biao hui so popular in Chinese Community? And why is it beyond the legal system?[查看详细内容]  分享到微信
详细:

“总共有50几万,我女儿2个,还有我外孙,我表妹。还有现金20几万,都是从别人那里(借来)转借给她的,中国那边的香港那边的,我堂哥的,他们现在都逼我还钱。我几次都想跳楼,这么多钱,我哪有钱还给人家。我病得都站不起来了,都快要死过去了。”


“More than $500,000 from my two daughters, my grandson, and my cousin. Another over $200,000 transferred to HER in cash, all borrowed from my family and friends in China. Everyone is after me seeking for the money. I was about to kill myself many times. I can’t afford to pay back this much. My health condition is really bad right now. I am about to die.”


邹秀英口中的“她”就是本台此前曾多次报道过多次的“千万会头曾姑娘”,来自福建连江的曾文兰。邹秀英怎么也没想到,认识了18年的老乡,一名“虔诚”的佛教徒,会做出“诈骗”这种事。而最让她觉得生气的,是曾文兰开始倒会后,还从她手上借走了4万8千元。


The HER Xiuying Zou mentioned is “Miss Zeng”, whose name has appeared in our news stories many times, the million dollar biao hui head Wenlan Zeng from Lianjiang Fujian. Zou can’t believe a fellow villager she has known for 18 years,a “sincere” Buddhist, would involved in a “fraud”. Zou is furious about Zeng borrowed another $48,000 after the biao hui collapsed.


今天上午,与邹秀英有着相同遭遇的148名受害人代表,前往华埠市警5分局报案,总报案金额达到1055万。之后,受害者们前往美国福建同乡会,希望同乡会能够为他们提供法律支持,讨回损失。


148 victims of this case, who share the same experience with Zou, filed a report to NYPD 5th Pct this morning. $10,550,000 was involved in this case so far. The victims also went to Fukien Benevolent Association of America seeking judicial support. 


“2年了,差不多2万。” “我大概有10几万。” “我们不要别的,把本金拿回来就好。”


“It’s been 2 years. I have put in around $20,000.” “I have put in more than $100,000.” “We are not looking for any revenues, we just want our investment back.”


组织这次行动的倒会受害者微信群群主Maggie Lin介绍,她是2015年经朋友介绍,加入了曾文兰的标会,截止目前已缴纳了5万多元本金,却从没有拿到钱。但是今年6月,当她看到此前华文媒体报道的曾文兰倒会新闻后,便建立了该微信群,才发现受害者人数之多,涉案金额之大。


Maggie Lin, the convener of the victims, reveals she invested more than $50,000 after she learned about this biao hui from a friend in 2015. But she didn’t get a penny back. She started gathering victims after she discvovered Zeng’s biao hui had collasped. She was shocked to know the numbers of victims and how much money they put in.


“2年多时间,我都没有把钱拿出来过,也是第一次在她那边做。我是通过朋友认识她的,因为听说她是信佛的人,她家里还有佛堂。她可以说是以做会的名义,但是没人从中拿到过钱。160、170个人,没人从中拿到过钱,她都转到自己口袋里了。如果我们没有把受害人都集中在一起的话,我们根本就不知道里面是什么情况。现在我们才了解没人从中拿到过钱,你说她是不是欺诈?”

“I didn’t get any money out of the biao hui in over 2 years. It is my first time joining a biao hui. I learned about Zeng and her biao hui through a friend. I heard she is a Buddhist, she even has a prayer room in her house. Zeng started this biao hui, but none of the 160 to 170 victims ever got money back. Zeng took all the money. If I didn’t gather the victims together, 

no one would know what was going on. She scammed us.”


Maggie说,在这些受害者中,受骗金额最大的达到了70多万,最少的也有2万。绝大多数会员都有帮家里人投钱,所以受害者人数和金额要比现在的数字更加巨大。

Maggie tells us each victim lost $20,000 to $700,000. Since most victims also invested in this biao hui on behalf of their family, the number of the victims and the investments they put in could be even bigger.


百余人为什么都心甘情愿将千万资金交给一个他们不甚了解,通过别人介绍的女子,而且信任到几年都不问她要回这些钱?首先,“标会”,也被金融学家称作 “Rotating Saving and Credit Association”,是中国古老的民间借贷方式。虽然移民美国,但许多参与标会的华裔民众本身对这一体系非常熟悉和信任。曾文兰在来美前曾在连江老家做过标会,也曾有倒会的前科。但是来美之后,做了近18年的标会,慢慢在移民中建立了口碑。同时她也标榜自己是虔诚佛教徒,以此博得华裔民众的好感和信任。


How could more than a hundred people keep investing thousands of dollars in a biao hui that is run by someone they barely know and never ask for returns? First of all, First of all, economists define biao hui as a rotating saving and credit association, a traditional Chinese underground loan system. Chinese immigrants are very familiar with this system,

and they trust it. Zeng used to run biao hui back in her hometown Lianjiang and has embezzlement records. But after she came to the US, Zeng has been running biao hui for 18 years earned her exceptional reputation among Chinese immigrants. She claimed herself as a “sincere” Buddhist to gain trust among fellows. 


其次单次投入金额相对较少,回报率高,也令许多手中有富裕资金的民众蠢蠢欲动。每月向标头缴纳1000元,就能拿回1400元,利息高达40%。虽然有些会员心里不太踏实,但是看到如此高的投资回报率,义无反顾的加入了标会,到如今才发现追悔莫及。


Secondly, good ROIs attract cash flows. A monthly $1,000 investment will get $1,400 in return, a ROI of 40%. People lost their vigilance after learning about the high ROI rate. But it is too late to regret now.


但最重要的是,在这些受害者当中,许多都是无身份移民,没有办法加入正规的金融体系,他们需要借贷和资金流转时,只能寻求民间帮助。大银行大金融机构也很少到华埠举办中文讲座,许多不善英文的移民对于美国金融体系知之甚少,也给许多诈骗者以可乘之机。


Most importantly, many of the victims are undocumented immigrants. They have no way of getting loans from legit financial institutes. They could only borrow money through  underground loan industry. Big financial institutes barely provide Chinese language workshops to the Chinese community, So new Chinese immigrants with limited English skills 

are not able to learn about American credit system. All of these factors create loopholes for scams.


“2009年到现在2017年,我会员已经拿了310万。我最近投资,还有其他的,也丢了370多万。而且我这个会中不止拿会钱。还有人通过我放高利贷,利息他们也拿走了之前。因为有客人把钱放我这里赚高利贷利息。高利贷利息也给人家放了几百万。(会钱)标了就跑了,跑了又找不到了。”


“From 2009 to 2017, I had given $3,100,000 to my biao hui members. I lost over $3,700,000 through investment recently, including biao hui money and usurious interests. Because some members also practiced usury through my biao hui. The total interest was millions of dollars. And some members stopped paying once they won the bids. I can’t find them,” Wenlan Zeng tells the reporter over a phone call. 


曾文兰表示她现在正在出售纽约的房产,最短需要3个月的时间,所得将全部用来还债。但是Maggie表示,曾文兰出售纽约的3套房产所得也仅有3、4百万根本无法弥补所有受害者的损失。


Zeng says she is selling her properties in NY to pay back the money, but it will take at least 3 months. But Maggie Lin thinks Zeng's properties only worth 3 to 4 million dollars. It is just a fraction of the total loss.


Maggie表示,从下周开始,所有受害人将以25人为一组分批前往曼哈顿地区检察官办公室接受问话。但调查何时才能取得进展,损失是否能够追回,受害者们还要做好打持久战的准备。


Maggie Lin says the victims will be interrogated by Manhattan DA's Office as groups of 25 people. But whether can they charge the scammer or retrieve the money remains unknown.


案件发生后,社区团体美国亚总会邀请国会议员维乐贵丝,纽约市警72分局、布鲁克林地区检察官办公室,以及日落公园几家华人社团,共同展开“资金运作和防止地下贷款诈骗”讲座。希望能够让更多民众了解地下借贷的危险性,同时呼吁受害者第一时间报案,积极配合调查。


After the case was discovered, the Asian American Community Empowerment(BRACE) invited congresswoman Nydia Velazquez, NYPD 72th Pct, Brooklyn ADA, and local Chinese organizations  to host a workshop on how to prevent underground loan scams, in hope of helping people understand the risk of biao hui, and asking all the victims to report to the police ASAP.


“可以去报警,让警方重视并留下记录,也可以去地区检察官办公室求助,他们需要更多信息来展开针对诈骗嫌犯的调查,并追回赃款。”


“Report to the police, have a police report. Or seek help from local DA’s office. The law enforcement departments need more information in order to start an investigation and possibly track down the money.”


华裔助理检察官吴建宏:“受害者应该把和案情相关的日期,出入账,一切信息都记录下来,哪怕是现金交易,只要有嫌犯签字和受害者签字的交易记录,我们也可以据此展开调查,嫌犯的目的就是窃取,如果我们能证明他们的这个目的,我们就可以起诉他们。”


 Kin Ng, Brooklyn District Attorney’s Office “The victims should gather information and records of dates and amounts of money being transferred or any receipt of cash payments. These will help the investigation of this case. If we can prove the action of embezzling the money, we can sue the suspects.”


然而事实上,受害者能够寻求的帮助十分有限,找回金钱的希望更是渺茫。


However, the victims could only get very limited help. It’s very difficult for them to retrieve the money.


对于几起案件,市警5分局局长吴铭恒表示,因为涉及民事纠纷,警方无法立案,但是他们将受害者信息和受害金额全部记录下来,将移交曼哈顿地方检察官办公室立案调查。


Deputy Inspector Tommy Ng indicates that this incident is a civil dispute, they could not prosecute, but they have collected the victims' information and how much they lost, and presented the evidence to Manhattan DA's Office.


在被主流金融体系忽略的死角里,庞大的地下金融网络“暗流涌动”,成为随时吞噬被害人血汗钱的高危黑洞。在曾文兰倒会事件爆出后,短短数个月内,又有两个标会被倒,其中一个每份1000元,会脚75人;另一个每份700元,会脚102人,成立到现在约有100名一直分文未取的活会脚,累计损失超过千万。(美国中文网 王依依 周阳)


While mainstream financial institutes remain ignoring the needs of immigrant communities, the underground financial industry simmers below the surface, actively seeking for chances to prey on more victims through loopholes. Another two biao hui went down just within months after Zeng’s biao hui collapsed. One has 75 members,each paying $1,000/month. The other has 102 members,each paying $700/month. About 100 of the member didn’t get a penny back and suffered a total loss over $10,000,000. (Sinovision Yiyi Wang and Yang Zhou reporting from Manhattan Chinatown)


Why Do Chinese Turn to Biao Hui Instead of Banks for Loans
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